Tuesday, February 20, 2007

CR Questions 31, 32

31). "If the forest continues to disappear at its present pace, the koala will approach extinction," said the biologist. "So all that is needed to save the koala is to stop deforestation," said the politician.

Which one of the following statements is consistent with the biologist's claim but not with the politician's claim?

(A) Deforestation continues and the koala becomes extinct.
(B) Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.
(C) Reforestation begins and the koala survives.
(D) Deforestation is slowed and the koala survives.
(E) Deforestation is slowed and the koala approaches extinction

32). The postal service is badly mismanaged. Forty years ago, first-class letter delivery cost only three cents. Since then, the price has increased nearly tenfold, with an actual decrease in the speed and reliability of service.

Each of the following statements, if true, would tend to weaken the argument above EXCEPT:

(A) The volume of mail handled by the postal service has increased dramatically over the last forty years.
(B) Unprecedented increases in the cost of fuel for trucks and planes have put severe upward pressures on postal delivery costs.
(C) Private delivery services usually charge more than does the postal service for comparable delivery charges.
(D) The average delivery time for a first-class letter four decades ago was actually slightly longer than it is today.
(E) The average level of consumer prices overall has increased
more than 300 percent over the last forty years.

Answers --

31). OA - B

Let A=Deforestation continues

Let B=Koala becomes extinct

If A then B

We know the only consistent true result equivalent to this is its contrapositive i.e if not B then not A.

Biologists claim -- if deforestation continues koala will definitely extinct.
Hence if deforestation stops, the koala may or may not extinct.

Politician's claim - if deforestation stops then koala will not extinct.

E -- states if deforestation is stopped koala will extinct, consistent with Biologists claim but not with the politician's claim

D is consistent with the politician's claim.

32). OA - E

Conclusion-- Postal service is mismanaged.

Argument -- The Price has increased, whereas at the same time in reality reliability and speed has decreased.

E states Inflation had increased 3 folds i.e 300 but Prices have risen 10 times..

So, the postal service is mismanaged..hence supports the argument.

D is weakening the argument from the service point of view. It states it is better now (faster).

C - incorrect - implies private services are more costly; post office services are less expensive....Hence postal services are better than private services as they are less expensive than other comparable services.

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