Monday, October 9, 2006

Critical Reasoning Boldface Questions 1 - 4

1). The survival of the publishing industry depends upon the existence of a public who will buy the printed word in the form of newspapers, books and magazines. Over the past several years, however, the advance of electronic media, particularly CD-ROMs, online computer services, and the Internet, has made 9information available to the public electronically without the need for printed materials. As the availability of electronic media increases and as it is more easily accessible, the public has less need for printed materials. So the publishing industry is threatened by the advance of the computer information age.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is the part of evidence that the argument includes, the second is the conclusion that can be drawn only from the first.

(B) The first is the second-premise that the argument includes; the second is the conclusion that is reasonably drawn form this passage.

(C) The first is the second-premise that the argument includes, the second is the inference that must be drawn from this argument.

(D) The first is the fact that must be true, the second is the inference that can be correctly drawn from this argument.

(E) The first is the part of premise that the argument depends on; the second is the conclusion that is incorrectly drawn from this argument

2). Gasoline-powered boat engines manufactured in the a North American country prior to 1990 contribute significantly to the pollution found in the world¡¯s oceans. In 1990, however, the government imposed stricter pollution controls on gasoline engines manufactured for boats, and beginning in 1995, the government imposed a program of inspections for pre-1990 boat engines with increasingly rigorous pollution standards. As the older boat engines fail to pass inspection, boat owners are increasingly retiring their old engines in favor of newer, less-polluting boat engines. As a result, the amount of pollution these older boat engines emit into the world's oceans will steadily decrease over the next ten years.


The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as an evidence in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that can be drawn from this argument.

(B) The first is a fact that acts as a principle in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.

(C) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as an special evidence in support of the conclusion; the second is a general point that can be drawn from this argument.

(D) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as the third evidence in support of the argument; the second is a conclusion that must be true.

(E) The first is a final evidence in support of the argument; the second is a conclusion that can be drawn only from the first.

3). The interstitial nucleus, a sub-region of the brain's hypothalamus, is typically smaller for male cats than for female cats. A neurobiologist performed autopsies on male cats who died from disease X, a disease affecting no more than 0.5 percent of male cats, and found that these male cats had interstitial nuclei that were as large as those generally found in female cats. Thus, the size of the interstitial nucleus determines whether or not male cats can contract disease X, but, the hypothalamus is known not to be causally linked to disease Y, and disease X is a subtype of disease Y.


The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a fact in support of the consideration that is one of two points of this argument; the second is the alternative point that weighs against the first.

(B) The first is an evidence that supports the consideration that the argument includes; the second is the fact that weighs against that consideration that could be drawn from the first.

(C) The first is a general principle that is against the conclusion; the second is that conclusion.

(D) The first is an evidence that supports the conclusion; the second is an exceptional example.

(E) The first is a fact in support of the conclusion that the argument depends on; the second is a fact that is against the first one.

4). To be accepted as a member at the Brown Country Club, one must have a net worth of over ten million dollars and must not have any connections to the entertainment industry. Robert Chase, the publishing magnate, has a net worth of 5 billion dollars and chase has not financed any Hollywood movies, so he must be accepted as a member at the Brown Country Club.


The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is the part of evidence in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that could not be drawn from all evidence that the argument contains.

(B) The first is the first-evidence that supports this argument; the second is the mainpoint that must be drawn from all evidence that the argument includes.

(C) The first is the one fact of two that argument includes; the second is the conclusion that could be drawn from this passage.

(D) The first is the background that is necessary for this argument; the second is the conclusion that is not drawn only from the first.

(E) The first is the cause that the argument includes; the second is the effect that can be drawn only from this cause.


Answers --

1). The correct answer is D.
The first portion of BF is a fact --- Over the past several years …
Evidence --- As the availability of electronic...….. printed materials"Conclusion --- So the publishing industry……. the computer information age

A, B, C, E – incorrect -- the first statement is considered as premise. Further the use of “only” in choice A also makes it incorrect.

2). The correct answer choice is A.
The 1st BF is a premise showing 'cause and effect' relationship --- As the older boat….boat engines
The 2nd BF is the conclusion --- the amount of pollution…..next en years.Fact --- the government imposed stricter pollution ……
B – incorrect – 1st BF is not a fact. Use of MUST incorrect too.
C – incorrect – 1st BF is not special evidence, and 2nd BF is a conclusion instead of just being a general point.
D – incorrect – use of MUST makes it incorrect as extrem tones are not generally entertained in GMAT. Also the 1st Bf is not the 3rd evidence but is followed from a series of cause and effects sted before.
E – incorrect – the 1st is not the final evidence. Further the use of “only” makes this choice incorrect.

3). The correct answer choice is A.
Conclusion --- "thus the size of interstitial...contract disease X"
B – incorrect -- from the second you cannot draw the first. 2nd statement is combination of two facts. From these two facts you can conclude that -- hypothalamus is not directly related to disease X
So not fact itself but conclusion derived from these facts weighs against that consideration
C – incorrect -- conclusion is "thus the size of interstitial...contract disease X" and not the 2nd.
D – incorrect -- 2nd is general and not exceptional.
E – incorrect -- 1st and 2nd are not contradictory to each other.


4). The correct answer choice is A.
1st BF portion is part of evidence --- Robert Chase, the publishing magnate…. Hollywood movies --- it tells that Chase has more than 10 million dollars, but it also states that Chase has not financed any Hollywood movies. Not financing hollywood movies does not imply that he does not finances any other entertainment businesses too.

2nd BF portion is the conclusion --- he must be accepted ….. Brown Country Club.
There are 2 conditions which must be fulfilled in order to be accepted as a member of Brown Country Club, firstly – should have over 10 million dollars and secondly -- should not have any connections to the entertainment industry -- the two required conditions are not fulfilled, thus the conclusion that cannot be drawn from the evidences stated in the first part.
B – incorrect – use of MUST incorrect.
C – incorrect – the conclusion cannot be drawn from this passage.
D – incorrect – the statement preceding the 1st BF is the background.
E – incorrect – use of “only” makes this choice incorrect.

1 comment:

SHARMA JI said...

hi Prachi,

first thanks for giving such a nice material...

can u give a more clear idea about the difference between premise,fact and evidence. i am getting confused between these three.

i have already gone through the link, in your blog, that defines all the above term but i am still not able to differentiate.

thank you